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Tap – Feeds and Speeds

America´s Finest High–Speed Cutting Tools™

Basic Anatomy Taps Diagram

How to Tap Effectively and Optimize Tool Life
To minimize tapping issues the following rules should be followed:
    • Use a pitch controlled tapping attachment.
    • Choose the correct lubricant (Ultra S/P™ Super Premium).
    • Use the correct Tapping Drill Size and Type of Tap.
    • Choose the correct Speeds and Feeds.
    • Keeping taps sharp, check tap for wear.
    • Ensure accurate alignment.
    • Check hardness of material, especially when changing batches of material.
Chamfer Tap Style Diagram

Tapping Speed can be calculated using:  (Use Table below)
RPM = Feed Speed (SFM) / 0.26 x Tap's Outer Dimension

Tapping speeds should be "DECREASED" if
    • Lubricant is Poor, or Flow is Restricted.
    • Bottom lead or Spiral flute taps are used.
    • Thread depth ( % ) increase.
    • Thread pitch is course.
    • Cutting taper threads (50% Normal Speed).
Tapping speeds can be "INCREASED" if
    • Thread Depth decreases.
    • Thread Pitch is fine.
    • Coolant flow and Quality is Good.
    • Spiral point taps are used.


Tapping Speeds
Proper tapping speeds are very important in obtaining efficient tapping results. The optimum speed for tapping is highest speed that conditions permit, consistent with acceptable tool life. Speeds must be reduced as length of hole increases. Holes, taps with tapered chamfers are able to operate faster than taps with bottoming chamfers. Vertical tapping speeds can be increased, compared to horizontal tapping.

Recommended Feeds and Speeds table below suggests a "starting point" for selecting the speed to operate the tap.

Material Recommended Starting Point
Feeds and Speeds(SFM)
Aluminum - Cast Alloys 60
Aluminum - Diecast Alloys 70
Aluminum - Wrought Alloys 80
Brass 60-100
Bronze 30-40
Copper 60-80
Gun Metal 50-60
Cast Iron - Grey 30-60
Cast Iron - Ductile 50
Cast Iron - Alloys 15-30
Malleable Alloy 20-40
Magnesium Alloys 50-70
Nickel Alloys 10
Nimonic Alloys 10-12
Mild Steel 30-50
Steel - Medium Carbon 35
Tool Steels 15-25
Cast Steel 25
Titanium Alloys 10
Stainless Steel - 300 Series 10-20
Stainless Steel - 400 Series 15
Plastic 50-70
Zinc - Diecasting 80

 

Adobe Reader Logo   Informative Tapping Checklist

Adobe Reader Logo   Benefits of Coating Tools

Titanium Nitride (TiN) - Gold (2900 HV)*
General purpose coating, low heat resistance and good lubricity.
• Results in drilling through steel ranges 2X to 6X life span.
• Can push it 10–25% faster, but may compromise tool life.
Reduces the chance of cold welding.

Titanium Carbon Nitride (TiCN) - Pink to Purple (4000 HV)*
• Better in stainless steel than TiN.
• Recommended for aluminum, brass and bronze applications
• Suitable in very abrasive and high tensile materials.
• Designed for hardened steels and cast iron up to 45 Rockwell C.
• Layer of TiCN to a cutting tool will increase life span up to 6X.

Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAIN) - (4500 HV)*
ALTiN/TiAIN coating is great choice in machining stainless steels (All) at any speed.
• For semi-dry to dry cutting of most steels, high-nickel alloys, stainless steel and cast iron.
• However, the end user still needs to be cautious to not exceed the limitations of the high-speed steel.

* Coating hardness is measured in HV (hardness in Vickers). Heat — treat M2 as the base drills before coating would measure 880 HV (65RC).

Cutting Tool Lubricant
Type 11-AG Ultra S/P™
Super Premium
— High Viscosity

Norseman Ultra S/P™ Super Premium
• Super concentrated no run formula.
• Clings to vertical surfaces for continual lubrication.
• This fliud will extend tool life and yield a super machined finish.

Lubricants
The use of a suitable lubricant is essential with most tapping and reaming operations. Recommended lubricants for some common materials are as follows:

Carbon (mild) Steel:
Petroleum-based or synthetic cutting oil.

Alloy Steel:
Petroleum-based cutting oil mixed with a small amount( approx. 10% ) of kerosene or mineral spirits. This mixture is also suitable for use with stainless steel.

Cast Iron:
No lubricant. An air blast should be used to clear chips.

Aluminum:
Kerosene or mineral spirits mixed with a small amount ( 15–25% ) of petroleum-based cutting oil.

Brass:
Kerosene or mineral spirits.

Bronze:
Kerosene or mineral spirits mixed with a small amount (10–15%) of petroleum-based cutting oil.

Drill & Tap Products —

18 pc. Spiral Point, NC Tap & Drill Set - Norseman Drill
CN-TECH™ Cryogenic Nitrided HSS Products Set
Taper Pipe Taps - Regular & Interrupted - Norseman Drill and Tool
CAR Reamers Fast Spiral 3-Flats on Shank - Norseman Drill
High Performance Reduced Neck Spiral Point Gold Oxide, Titanium Nitride, Titanium Carbon Nitride, Titanium Aluminum Nitride
Left Hand Heavy Duty Jobber Length - Norseman Drill and Tool
10pc Screw and Bolt Extractor Set - Norseman Drill and Tool
Ultra Bit™ Multi-Diameter 3-flats on Shank - Norseman Drill
29pc. Blaze Orange Ultra Dex 135° Split Point NAS 907B Jobber Length - Norseman Drill